Sunday, December 18, 2022

Letter from Canadian Heritage Minister

Letter from Canadian Heritage Minister November 10, 2022

From: Honorable Pablo Rodriguez

Subject: Reply from the Ministerial Correspondence Secretariat, in response to your correspondence, forwarded to the HonourablePablo Rodriguez, Minister of Canadian Heritage 

Date: November 10, 2022 at 9:21 AM


Dear Mr. Zakreski:

I am writing in response to your correspondence, forwarded to the Honourable Pablo Rodriguez, Minister of Canadian Heritage, regarding the regulation of social media in accordance with the Broadcasting Act. Minister Rodriguez appreciates your taking the time to write on this matter. Please excuse the delay in my reply.

The Government of Canada understands the importance of local news to Canadians so that they have access to quality local and community programming that meets their needs. This includes access to high-quality local news on which Canadians rely to stay informed of issues that matter to them. In this regard, the Government appreciates your contribution through the Community Bulletin Board, Life on Gabriola.

As you may know, the Government provides support to local journalism, especially in small communities. For example, the Local Journalism Initiative supports the creation of original civic journalism that covers the diverse needs of underserved communities across Canada. In addition, the Canadian journalism labour tax credit is applied to the salaries or wages of employees of eligible organizations that produce original news content. The Government also implemented the Special Measures for Journalism 2021 component of the Canada Periodical Fund, which provided recovery funding to Canadian magazines and community newspapers to support organizations that struggled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Bill C-11, the Online Streaming Act, currently at its second reading before the Senate, does not seek to regulate social media platforms. Because content shared on social media cannot be considered a broadcasting undertaking, a Facebook group cannot be considered a community element or subjected to laws governing broadcast undertakings. Moreover, the Broadcasting Act only applies to audio and audiovisual content, not written journalism.

Furthermore, it is noteworthy to mention Bill C-18, the Online News Act, which is designed to support the Canadian news industry, and would make online platforms such as Google and Meta, compensate media organizations for reusing their journalism. This bill should contribute financially to the vitality of news media.

Please accept my best wishes. Sincerely,

Josée Ethier (elle/she/her)

Ministerial Correspondence Secretariat 

Saturday, December 17, 2022

Author Ken Zakreski

About the Author

Ken Zakreski, Bachelor of Arts (Business).

During the 1990's I served as President and Business Manager for the longest running community newspaper on Vancouver Island, BC, the Malaspina University-College’s, Navigator Newspaper Society. Following my work at the Navigator I worked as president in a for-profit print venture, PIER Magazine serving the Nanaimo BC area with news and entertainment reportage in the 90's.

My background in community media includes completing successful CRTC applications (old regime and current regime) for a campus based community radio undertaking (CHLY, 101.7FM - CRTC 2001-319) and community radio application (CKGI, 98.7FM - now defunct - CRTC 2011-679). 

I have followed: debate on Parl GC Bill C-10 (43-2) participating under Paul Manly MP, parliamentary debate on Parl GC Bill C-11 (44-1), Lincoln, Aird and Yale Reports. Familiar with amending legislation having been the government’s parliamentary and senate witness (concurrent hearings) to the Canada Shipping Act amendments, following the Valdez oil spill (1980's) on behalf of Georgia Strait Alliance. Our position (confirmed by an act of parliament ) was that oil should be illegal to spill in the waters of Canada and volunteers, those that clean up those spills, should be compensated from the Ship Source Oil Pollution Fund.

Currently, I volunteer as the longest running admin for the FaceBook Group serving the communities of Gabriola, Mudge, Link and De Courcey Islands in British Columbia. Community Bulletin Board – Life on Gabriola: ("CBBlog”) established in 2010, is the islands largest (and most active digital group) plus it runs with a citizen journalism heritage. CBBlog was formed to work as a news gathering service for the now defunct Gabriola Radio Society - CKGI 98.7 FM. Also created, back in the day, and still running is Social Events Bulletin Board – Life on Gabriola.

I am a former long term resident of Gabriola Island, British Columbia which is located about a 20 minute ferry ride from Nanaimo BC off Vancouver Island. Gabriola has a population of around 4,000. Gabriola is hard pressed, because of its size, to be served in any meaningful manner by commercial media yet is drowning in one of the most congested media corridors.

Ken Zakreski (he/him), is a ten+ year admin for one of the FaceBook Groups serving Gabriola, BC and spends his personal time between Mexico and the Netherlands.

Messages: +1 250 247 9891

Mexico: +52 33 1707 1364

Netherlands cell phone number to be announced.

Thursday, April 21, 2022

Memo regarding FaceBook Groups Admin ownership

Further to the inquiry regarding ownership status of the FaceBook Group CBBlog by the dissolved Gabriola Radio Society. 

Jared, a Law Student, from the Business Law Clinic provided a memo. The background document is included as well. 

 The full memo is attached and the conclusion was as follows: 


“Property” under the Societies Act includes rights and interests. Courts have classified contractual rights and interests as this kind of property. Facebook users derive contractual rights and interests from Facebook’s terms, conditions, and policies. In theory, these rights and interests in a Facebook group could be classified as property and distributed under the Societies Act. However, this transfer would have to be done with Facebook’s consent. Because there is no case law directly supporting this theory, its application would be contingent on a ruling from the Canadian courts. 

Tuesday, June 22, 2021

Government Bill


(House of Commons) C-10 (43-2) - Third Reading - An Act to amend the Broadcasting Act and to make related and consequential amendments to other Acts - Parliament of Canada

Saturday, June 5, 2021



Discoverability is a concept of growing use in digital cultural policy, but it lacks a clear and comprehensive definition. Typically, discoverability is narrowly defined as a problem for content creators to find an audience given an abundance of choice. This view misses the important ways that apps, online stores, streaming services, and other platforms coordinate the experiences of content discovery. In this article, we propose an analytical framework for studying the dynamic and personalized processes of content discovery on platforms. Discoverability is a kind of media power constituted by content discovery platforms that coordinate users, content creators, and software to make content more or less engaging. Our framework highlights three dimensions of this process: the design and management of choice in platform interfaces (surrounds), the pathways users take to find content and the effects those choices have (vectors), and the resulting experiences these elements produce. Attention to these elements, we argue, can help researchers grapple with the challenging mutability and individualization of experience on content discovery platforms as well as provide a productive new way to consider content discovery as a matter of platform governance.